پایش و ارزیابی کاهش مخاطرات بلایا
This is, for example, reflected in the lack of training courses, tools and guidelines in relation to M&E DRR. As a result, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) has been one of the weakest areas of DRR programme management to date, partly due to the methodological challenges that it presents. Measuring the impact of DRR programmes is a major challenge, because of what has been called its ‘reverse logic’: i.e., the success of an intervention is that something – the disaster or a particular form or level of loss in the event of a disaster – does not happen. Unfortunately, there is a lack of M&E tools and approaches for DRR. It is clear that much more research is needed in this area.
However, interest in M&E for DRR is rapidly increasing. Growing awareness and support for investment in disaster prevention and preparedness has generated demand for tools to appraise disaster risk reduction projects, identify the most cost effective investments, and measure their impact. For example, cost-benefit analysis is increasingly being used in DRR, both to design programmes and to demonstrate impact. Cost–benefit analysis is generally held to make a convincing case for risk reduction, but it is very difficult to carry out – particularly in pricing the environmental, social, political and psychological costs and benefits.