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نویسنده: حسین بدری پور - چهارشنبه ٢٢ شهریور ۱۳٩۱

پانل مستقل عالی رتبه ای که به منظور راه اندازی و حفظ مکانیزم توسعه پاک (CDM) پروتکل کیوتو شکل گرفته است وضعیت مکانیزم فوق را مناسب ارزیابی نکرده و انتظار دارد کشورها اقدامی عاجل برای حل معضلات موجود بر سر راه بازار کربن بنمایند.

تنها  4،500 پروژه در 75 کشور در حال توسعه، در حال اجرا می باشند که وضعیت چندان خوبی نیست. در حال حاضر به دلیل قیمت پایین، تقاضای کم و عدم اطمینان از آینده و سطح تقاضای آتی است که چالشی فراروی مکانیزم فوق می باشد.

برای پرداختن به کاستی ها و بهبود اعتبار و عملکرد مکانیزم در آینده، پانل توصیه  نمود که اصلاحات اساسی در روشهای عملیاتی CDM. اعمال شود  و به طور خاص، خواستار:

• نظام قوی تر گزارش دهی، نظارت، و تایید اثرات توسعه پایدار؛
• دسترسی بیشتر  از طریق روش های ساده؛
• اصلاح ضوابط ترکیب هیئت اجرایی مکانیزم توسعه پاک  به نحوی که علاوه بر توزیع منطقه ای، دانش و تجربه حرفه ای را نیز شامل شود؛
• اجرای روشی استاندارد به عنوان معیار عملکرد و لیست مثبت، برای ارزیابی تکمیلی.


علاوه بر این، پانل توصیه نمود که به منظور ارتقاء وضعیت آن، کشورها نقش خود را در ارتقاء وضعیت  CDM ایفا نمایند. پانل توصیه می کند که:

• روش های جدید از جمله  برنامه های ملی+ REDD، اجرا شود؛
• پروژه های جدیدی که به کاهش HFC-23 و یا N2O از گیاهان اسید آدیپیک کمک می کنند از این مکانیزم خارج شود؛
• استانداردهای قوی برای فعال سازی ارتباط و هماهنگی مجموعه ای از بازارهای کربن موجود و در حال ظهور ایجاد شوند؛
• از ایجاد صندوق اقلیم سبز پشتیبانی شود.

لینک های مفید:
www.cdmpolicydialogue.org
www.cdm.unfccc.int

The independent high-level panel established to take stock of the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has released its eagerly awaited recommendations by urging nations to intervene forcefully to address the crisis in the carbon market and substantially increase their level of ambition when it comes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.


The ability under the CDM to earn a saleable credit for each tonne of GHG emissions reduced has spawned more than 4,500 project in 75 developing countries, everything from wind energy and efficient cook-stove projects to land-fill gas and large industrial projects.  The CDM, credited with creating the first global environmental currency, is now under threat due to the current low prices paid for credits, the result of low demand and uncertainty over the timing and level of future demand, which is tied to countries’ emission-reduction commitments.

According to the high-level panel, if nations permit the CDM mechanism to disintegrate, the political consensus for truly global carbon markets may evaporate.  Therefore, the panel calls on nations to increase their mitigation ambition by strengthening the pledges that have been made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and by adopting corresponding domestic policies and measures.

The CDM was set up to do two things: give countries with a commitment under the Kyoto Protocol some flexibility in how they meet those commitments, and assist countries to achieve their sustainable development goals.  The mechanism has been criticized by some stakeholders for being too stringent and slow, and by others for not being stringent enough in ensuring that the emission reductions produced are additional, and would not have happened anyway, even without the CDM.  Other stakeholders have questioned projects’ contribution to sustainable development, responsibility for which is left up to host countries.

To address shortcomings and improve the mechanism’s reputation and performance in the future, the Panel recommends fundamental reforms of the CDM’s operating procedures.  More specifically, the Panel calls for:

•    more systematic reporting, monitoring, and verification of sustainable development impacts;
•    greater access for under-represented regions through simplified procedures;
•    revised criteria for the composition of the CDM Executive Board (CDM EB) to reflect not only regional distribution, but also professional knowledge and experience;
•    implementation of standardized methods, such as performance benchmarks and positive lists, for assessing additionality.

In addition, the Panel urges nations to take measures to enhance the CDM’s role so that it adapts to new political and market conditions.  More specifically, the Panel recommends that:

•    new approaches, such as sectoral crediting or national REDD+ programmes, be implemented;
•    new projects that reduce HFC-23 or N2O from adipic acid plants be phased out;
•    robust standards to enable linking and harmonization of current and emerging carbon markets be set;
•    the rapid implementation of the Green Climate Fund be supported.

The wide-ranging research programme commissioned by the panel found that over the past decade, the CDM alone has helped nations mitigate approximately one billion tonnes of GHG emissions in a manner that realized US$3.6 billion in savings for developed countries.  Over this same period the CDM has mobilized more than US$215 billion in investments in developing countries, thereby accelerating economic growth and poverty alleviation.

To make the CDM fit for the future, the panel recommends 51 actions across 12 areas.  Its recommendations cover issues such as the crisis of demand, mitigation impact, linking of carbon markets, sustainable development, regional distribution, governance structure, additionality, stakeholder and public engagement, as well as mechanisms for appeals and grievances.
 
In formulating its recommendations, the high-level panel commissioned a wide-ranging research programme addressing 22 topics across three main areas: the impact of the CDM to date; the governance and operations of the CDM; and the future context in which the CDM could operate.  It also organized a stakeholder consultation programme holding dozens of formal and informal meetings around the world.

The panel, which officially presented its report at the sixty-ninth meeting of the CDM Executive Board in Bangkok, urges that its recommendations be implemented fully and without delay with a timetable agreed that will bring them into effect by the United Nations Climate Change Conference scheduled for December 2013.

Besides the chair Valli Moosa (South Africa) and the vice-chair Joan MacNaughton (UK), the other members of the high-level panel on the CDM policy dialogue are: Luciano Coutihno (Brazil), Maggie L. Fox (USA), Ross Garnaut (Australia), Prodipto Ghosh (India), Yolanda Kakabadse (Ecuador), Margaret Mukahanana-Sangarwe (Zimbabwe), Paul Simpson (UK), Nobuo Tanaka (Japan) and Changhua Wu (China).

Useful links:
www.cdmpolicydialogue.org
www.cdm.unfccc.int

حسین بدری پور
من بیش از یک دهه سابقه کار در سازمان جنگلها، مراتع و آبخیزداری کشور را دارم و در حال حاضر هم در مقطع دکترای منابع طبیعی تحصیل می نمایم. هدف از راه اندازی این وبلاگ اطلاع رسانی در خصوص مباحث روز منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست از قبیل همایش ها، پروژه ها و طرح های مرتبط در سطح ملی و بین المللی می باشد.
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